Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on Glanmore

Glanmore Sonnets IV There are many important elements within any given poem. Seamus Heaney’s poem, â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV,† is of no exception to this idea. Poetry is, more or less, up for interpretation. Most poetry is not written like a novel; it does not tell a specific story and sometimes fails to give you all of the details you need to decipher it. A poem is there for the reader to interpret on his or her own. After recently reading â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV† by Heaney I have taken my own understanding of it. This perception could be completely different from any one of my classmates’ understandings, which is reasonably acceptable. To obtain an insightful interpretation of a poem’s content, many elements must be considered. Poetic terms, tone, imagery, language, situation, rhyme scheme and the title’s significance are all elements to deem important when demystifying a poem. I used to lie with an ear to the line For that way, they said, there should come a sound Escaping ahead, an iron tune Of flange and piston pitched along the ground. But I never heard that. Always, instead, Struck couplings and shuntings two miles away Lifted over the woods. The head Of a horse swirled back from a gate, a grey Turnover of haunch and mane, and I’d look Up to the cutting where she’d soon appear. Two fields back, in the house, small ripples shook Silently across our drinking water (As they are shaking now across my heart) And vanished into where they seemed to start. This poem by Seamus Heaney can be explicated through many different approaches. In my elucidation of â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV,† the poem can be understood through the poetic terms, situation and the larger idea. To illustrate the poem sufficiently many things must first be understood. First thing to consider to the form the poem is written in. Counting the lines can assist you in determining whether it is a narrative poem, a lyric poem... Free Essays on Glanmore Free Essays on Glanmore Glanmore Sonnets IV There are many important elements within any given poem. Seamus Heaney’s poem, â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV,† is of no exception to this idea. Poetry is, more or less, up for interpretation. Most poetry is not written like a novel; it does not tell a specific story and sometimes fails to give you all of the details you need to decipher it. A poem is there for the reader to interpret on his or her own. After recently reading â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV† by Heaney I have taken my own understanding of it. This perception could be completely different from any one of my classmates’ understandings, which is reasonably acceptable. To obtain an insightful interpretation of a poem’s content, many elements must be considered. Poetic terms, tone, imagery, language, situation, rhyme scheme and the title’s significance are all elements to deem important when demystifying a poem. I used to lie with an ear to the line For that way, they said, there should come a sound Escaping ahead, an iron tune Of flange and piston pitched along the ground. But I never heard that. Always, instead, Struck couplings and shuntings two miles away Lifted over the woods. The head Of a horse swirled back from a gate, a grey Turnover of haunch and mane, and I’d look Up to the cutting where she’d soon appear. Two fields back, in the house, small ripples shook Silently across our drinking water (As they are shaking now across my heart) And vanished into where they seemed to start. This poem by Seamus Heaney can be explicated through many different approaches. In my elucidation of â€Å"Glanmore Sonnets IV,† the poem can be understood through the poetic terms, situation and the larger idea. To illustrate the poem sufficiently many things must first be understood. First thing to consider to the form the poem is written in. Counting the lines can assist you in determining whether it is a narrative poem, a lyric poem...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation in Complex Projects Essay

Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation in Complex Projects - Essay Example Evaluation is there to bring these into light. As bared by Bako (n.d.) however, evaluation and evaluators are still seen as elements of managerial work that inflame one's nerves rather than challenge one for change. Managers are often confronted with questions and challenges both from inside and outside the organization about projects. Questions asked include proper use of resources, results in line with efforts, services meeting beneficiaries' expectations or not, and proper spending of money. To answer these questions, evaluations are undertaken by organizations but relevant information must be gathered systematically first, which is the process of monitoring. Large-scale infrastructure projects would even more need monitoring and evaluation efforts. Examples of complex projects involve the development of power plants, telecommunications systems, water treatment facilities, ports, urban transportation systems and toll ways. Most of these are owned by private sector developers or are partnerships with public sector institutions. They are typically capital intensive, involving tens if not hundreds of millions of dollars of investment (CRGP, n.d.). Complex projects, according Coffman (n.d.) compose of a subset of projects large enough financially to pose a significant risk to the organization if they are not conceived of and executed well. There is multiplicity of the parties involved in the planning, financing and execution of the projects. There is also at times complexity in the multiple nationalities of the parties(CRGP, n.d.). According to the World Bank, a separate administrative unit for monitoring is expedient where project objectives are complex, or with projects with multiple components. (WB 1989). The purpose is to serve the information needs of the implementing agency and so accordingly such unit should be integrated into the management structure (Ibid.). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems should be of quality. At the outset, projects are required to design and implement plans for M&E as far as the Global Environment Facility (GEF, 2004) Council is concerned. To them, an issue with complex projects is their over-ambitious objectives in relation to available resources and the periods for implementation. Another is the unrealistic assumptions about either project problems or solutions (Ibid.). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) Monitoring is mainly an internal process carried out by those implementing the project. Preferably, monitoring should involve all stakeholders as the results need to be shared with them and fed back into implementation (www.bond.org, n.d.). Monitoring is the continuous assessment of project implementation with the main objective of providing continuous feedback (WB 1989). On the other hand, evaluation is the periodic assessment of the relevance, performance, efficiency, and impact of the project, both expected ad unexpected, in relation to stated objectives. It is intended to identify project design problems, and is essentially an internal activity undertaken for project management. (Ibidl). An evaluation is an assessment of an ongoing or completed project rendered as objective as possible. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, development, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. Information in an evaluation should be credible and useful to enable learning from the lessons incorporated for the

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Participative Management - A Study of John Lewis Partnership Case

Participative Management - A of John Lewis Partnership - Case Study Example Competitors find it difficult to replicate the competitive edge acquired by such a firm over a period of time. The objective of this report is to analyze HRM principles and theoretical observations applicable to John Lewis Partnership. The report will also examine whether and where the HRM policies adopted by the company fulfill or fall short in strengthening its efforts to achieve organizational goals and attempts at suggesting remedial measures. Human Resource Management-Participative Management: The central theme of human resource management is to enhance employee performance through employee commitment (Armstrong, 1987, Storey 1995 cited in McGunnigle 2000). The right human resource management system attracts and retains the right talent, develops workforce skills, resolves or avoids conflicts and motivates workforce into a culture of commitment to achieve organizational goals (Storey 1995 cited in McGunnigle 2000). Watson et al. suggest that a culture of commitment may be induced by the application of specific practices within HRM areas such as recruitment and selection, training and development, reward systems, employee participation, involvement and empowerment (Watson et al. 1996 cited in McGunnigle 2000). Kinnie et al. ... Involvement in decision making Performance appraisal with tight links to contingent pay (Holbeche 2001 p.13) Kinnie et al. sound a word of caution when they argue that the application of specific HR policies may not have a uniformly desirable effect on all employees working in an organization. They argue that the extant debate on the links between HR policy and organizational performance has been based on the distinction between the 'best practice' and 'best fit' perspectives, both of which assume that HR policies have the same effect on all employees working in an organization. The best practice view put forth by Pfeffer (1994, 1998 cited in Kinnie et al. 2005) identifies a set of policies associated with performance improvement applicable to all industries and by implication to all employees. On the other hand the best-fit strategy proposed by Schuler and Jackson (1987 cited in Kinnie et al. 2005) and Miles and Snow (1984 cited in Kinnie et al. 2005) suggests that HR policies consistent with business strategy maximize performance. (Kinnie et al. 2005). There have been a number of references to 'participative management' within the literature on human resource management, which however must not be confused with permissiveness. According to Frohman, it is a "practical approach to solving problems and achieving performance targets by utilizing people as resources." As against the human resource approach which "aims to generate compliance and employee morale" participative management is a "quest for improved performance and quality." (Frohman 1988) John Lewis Partnership (JLP): JLP is an employees' co-operative, wholly owned by its 64,000 employee-partners. This unique democratic management model imbues the company with a corporate

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Detroit bankruptcy Essay Example for Free

Detroit bankruptcy Essay The City of Detroit bankruptcy is a historical event since the city of Detroit is one of the largest cities ever filed for bankruptcy. However, the court trial will decide after considering all the facts and testimonials, if City of Detroit will qualify for bankruptcy. City of Detroit has filed for bankruptcy mainly because of financial factors such as expenditures were higher than revenues, the high level of debts and bad management. In the audit report issued for the 2012 there were many qualified and adverse opinions with regards to the financial statements. The fact that City of Detroit filed for bankruptcy, as hard as it might be, would give the city a new start and a new way of managing and thinking. This city needs restructuring and functioning under a new economic vitality. By developing new strategic plans such as new employment opportunities and offering reliable services for its residents and businesses, city of Detroit will regain its role in the economic vitality of Michigan. The economy of Detroit plays a key role in the economic development of Michigan. City of Detroit is known as the Motor City for the innovations in the auto industry but also for its goal diversifications into emerging fields such as information technology and advanced manufacturing. Encouraging advantage are the different tax incentive programs that city of Detroit offers. For example, Detroit Renaissance Zone Tax includes a waiver of city income and utility users taxes, most city property taxes, county property taxes. The program applies to businesses that will conduct business within the area and are not delinquent in any local, county or state taxes and once qualified there is no need to reapply. Should our corporation consider being part of big changes in Detroit and consider the benefit of tax incentives, I would be happy to further assist in this initiative.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Singapore Essay examples -- Philosophy, Neoliberal Ideology

In a sense, Singapore has always been driven by neoliberal ideology. In the 1960s and 1970s, Singapore’s economic competitiveness was based upon its ability to generate low-cost manufacturing assembly, its political stability, and geographical location (Yeung, 2000: 142). However, by the 1980s, Singapore was being outcompeted by other developing Asian countries, and met this ‘competitiveness crunch’ with national strategies promoting high-tech business services (Yeung, 2000: 142). Rigorous infocomm programmes were enacted as early as 1980, the IDA maintained sustained drives to promote and educate their citizens regarding ICTs. As a result of the National IT Plan (1986-1991), computer software and services industry increased its revenue 10-fold, the ICT workforce pool grew from 850 to 5,500, and the IT business and e-commerce continued to expand through subsequent programmes (iN2015 Steering Committee, 2006: 33). In 2006, Singapore boasted the highest ratio of infocomm-related patents to total patents in the world, and the iN2015 Steering Committee attributed this success to the national ICT programmes (2006: 36). More than ever, Singapore is a consumer-driven country with a prosperous economy. The infocomm initiatives purposefully drove the economy forward by encouraging business to enter the e-economy and by persuading consumers this was safe and convenient. With the specific aim of encouraging national and international companies to set up e-commerce trading centres in Singapore, the Singaporean government introduced the ‘Approved Cyber Traders’ scheme which entitled qualifying firms to pay less corporate tax (Teo, 2002: 259). A highly sophisticated electronic payment infrastructure encouraged both vendors and consumers t... ...d safeguard against fraud and theft if a strong e-commerce industry is to be fostered. Are ICTs in Singapore being used as instruments of control, and how much are they being utilised as facilitators of open democracy? Democracy relies heavily on a free press, but as Brown points out, this is compromised by neoliberalist corporate ownerships and laws shielding political officials from defamation (2006: 695). This is true of Singapore today. The state controls the broadcast media that is friendly to the government, and defamation suits dissuade journalists from publishing contentious political pieces (O’Hara, 2008: 10). In Singapore, the media coverage of political opposition has long been suppressed, primarily under the justification of ‘national interest’, an ideology of control that has driven the nation’s policy on media control (Lee and Willnat, 2006: 10).

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Project Management-Transformational Corporate Strategy Essay

Overview of the case study The business environment is very competitive. Consequently, companies need to offer customers proficient and reliable service. If they do not, customers will switch to more consumer efficient companies. Furthermore, as companies grow in size, it becomes harder to keep track of the growing amount of sales and customer information. If a company does a poor job by not focusing and maintaining customer satisfaction, it can result in problems for both the company and the consumer. This study will focus on the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, more commonly known as 3M, and how it empowered its employees, improved its growth rate, customer service and sales by introducing a new approach to growth. This study also provides critical interrogation on the approaches and strategies applied by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company in its efforts to turn around the company after the loss of profit despite the reputable strong tradition of innovation culture. Firstly, the study provides critical elements of innovative methods applied in order to exploit the profitable gains from the excellent research practise. This is done by explicating innovation process that has been applied at the 3M Company  leading to innovative strategic thinking coupled with the work done on the ground. It then identifies the curative recommendations in addressing the major problems that have been identified throughout the case. The fundamental problem of the 3M Company was the inability to exploit profitable improvements by exploiting its excellent and reliable research practice to the advantage of the company. Consequently, the company could not diversify its products in relation to the demands of the fast changing and sophisticated markets at a worldwide level. The company needed to embark on a major example change without compromising its excellent research tradition but to seek turn around strategies in order to maximise its profits. Recommendations and conclusions are clearly defined and they reveal what the author thinks about being an innovative leader who is able to support employees’ in their new ideas by implementing the company culture which is supportive to all of them to produce successful projects. QUESTION 1: What are the main elements of the innovative process at 3M? Is it possible and desirable for other companies to emulate them? â€Å"Richard Lynch defines Innovation as the generation and exploitation of new ideas. Furthermore it also provides organisations with the ammunition to move ahead of the competition. He states that innovation can deliver three priceless asserts to strategic management: 1. Substantial future growth 2. Competitive advantage 3. Ability to leapfrog major competition, even dominant competitors The innovative process at 3M has usually been a focus area for the top management. The company adopted a get out of the away approach towards the product developers in return worked accordingly towards innovation, together with technicians each team had a process engineer to ensure that the product was efficiently made. ï  ¶ The whole team did not face any risk if the product has failed. ï  ¶ The product developers should pay visits in the factories and workplaces to talk to the workers to get ideas for products. ï  ¶ The developers were not given the share of product royalties as the company believed that innovation was driven by sheer love of it. But the developers were encouraged by various means like rewards for innovation and grants for innovative projects. ï  ¶ There was also a dual ladder approach that provided the senior technical persons with great career opportunities to advance without switching over to management. Some of the elements of an innovative process at 3M is a free frame, people are able, capable and freed from any restrictions. Nevertheless someone should judge, review the Innovation Process. Stage stones should be set up otherwise it is no real process. Furthermore the consistency and the success factor should beat a specific period extremely revised and reconsidered regarding implement capability. In today’s competitive industry, cost plays a big role. Innovation is perhaps one of the most words that are over used in the business world today, and some of the organisations blow the innovation trumpet preach but don’t necessarily practice. But there are organisations like 3M that do practice innovation which gives hope to the organisation as they are using innovation in their daily lives through ground breaking products & services which made the company to be in the top ten of Fortune magazine’s most admired US Company. 3M Company sticks to its innovation, If we take a step back from the Innovation process, for the process to be successful it needs an environment to encourage Innovation, below are the points of what the environment characteristics needs to be: ï  ¶ Organizations eager to take measured risks. ï  ¶Ã‚  Business leaders being able to understand technology and the application of it. ï  ¶ An organization that is exposed to change. ï  ¶Ã‚  An organization that is brave enough to see beyond the financial benefits is not made visible that quickly. ï  ¶ Processes and structures to encourage brave thinking business leaders that are able to see what tomorrow will look like The Innovation Process: (Tidd et al., 2005). States that â€Å"the ability to manage the innovation process is an essential competence of any organization, but members must first understand the workings of the process to be successful† Figure 1.1 Adapted from: O’Sullivan (Innovation Process) – 5/29/2008 â€Å"O, Sullivan further explains that† Idea generation The first stage in this perspective of the innovation process relates to the creative activity of generating an opportunistic idea. This stage involves the continuous scanning of the internal and external environment for threats and opportunities that might be developed into an innovation by the organization. This stage involves mining the sources of innovation for new ideas and evaluating solutions to identified problems. An organizational culture that encourages creativity and empowerment can significantly support this phase of the process; this is exactly the similar culture that functional at 3M Company. The input typically stems from a technical insight into a product or process. This is evident in the case of 3M, when Fry had an idea of taking a peelable  adhesive that had been developed some year’s earlier at the 3M research laboratories and spreading it to marketers, it is further mentioned in the case study that it worked well. Opportunity Recognition The second stage of the process is opportunity recognition, in which the opportunity of developing the idea into a new product, process, or service is assessed and evaluated relative to other opportunities. This phase of the process involves deciding which innovative ideas will be pursued by the organization and which are deemed outside its interest. The undertaking of innovative actions is both expensive and resource intensive for any organization, and even large organizations such as 3M. Development If an opportunity is recognized as appropriate for the organization, then the idea moves to a new stage where it can be developed further. This phase involves the development of the idea or solution into a potential innovation that is ready for launch to its internal or external market. The development of an innovation can be highly resource intensive for any organization. It also applies to Fry when his ideas worked well and requested permission to develop the product commercially and he was given an opportunity to develop a manufacturing process. Realization This phase of the innovation process relates to the launch to the market, which is where the customer makes the final evaluation of the innovation. Understanding customer needs is essential to ensure that the eventual offering to the market meets these needs. Competitive Advantage: A superiority gained by an organisation when it can provide the same value as its competitors but at a lower price, or can charge higher prices by providing greater value through differentiation which results from matching  core competencies to the opportunities. They had strong innovation and research foundation at 3M Company that has ability of adaptability, although they experienced loss before but they managed to turn around the situation. It appears that they do not have a competitor in the world with the same level as they are. Instead, there appears to be several competitors in each sector or industry in which 3M offers its products and services. Frequently, as companies grow, they tend to become more bureaucratic and less able to adapt to changes in the market or industry. To conclude I would say that 3M Company’s existing controls are very good and support their strategy. However, they should also incorporate the other missing controls to ensure greater innovation power and profitability. Looking at today’s Industries and competitions amongst them, in my opinion ,I would suggest other company’s follow the steps of 3M, the have made some mistakes but were able to turn around the situation due to their elements of innovation process. QUESTION 2: What do you think of Six Sigma? Can other companies do the same? Firstly Six Sigma is defined as a â€Å"program that is used to improve processes within the organization be it in manufacturing or production processes. Six Sigma is usually prepared at defining goals and problems, measuring existing data and processes, analysing problems and goals, improving processes or tasks and controlling how the problems will be resolved in the future. According to the research I have identified three traits from Six Sigma† I.  The advantages ï  ¶ The benefits of Six Sigma contain the improvement and development of operating processes to ensure quicker response time, quality products and services and better monitoring of performance and work outputs, which I think it is the best approach to growth for 3M since they have dropped their sales. ï  ¶ This type of an approach or model surely and possibly saved 3M Company to come up with the said results and benefits because it provides a formula in which an existing processes is checked for consistency, efficiency and effectiveness, if it fails to measure to the existing industry standards it is revised and redesigned to match the best practices . I would advise other companies to do the same because it is the model that guides the company. II.  The costs ï  ¶ The Six Sigma model also ensures that costs will be dropped because there will be limited time spent in the process and more time to work on the actual tasks which is already handy at 3M. ï  ¶ It appears time its cost is huge and that an organization has to appoint or hire a person that would guide and train top management and middle management in the principles of Six Sigma which is wise for all the companies like 3M than running their businesses at a lot, dropping sale, losing profit. ï  ¶ Furthermore Six Sigma will also empower the employees to gain knowledge as it is the model that will require trainings, yes it will be costly but with productive results at the end. III.  The risks ï  ¶ Six Sigma might also have its own risks, some organisations might not be patient but looking at its approach, it had a positive impact on the 3M Company; it also developed leadership skills and focused on customer satisfaction. Furthermore, even though the approach does wonders in the company, not all  companies of the 3M embraces Six Sigma some of these reasons are very costly training of human force, only applies to the manufacturing industry, and it is just a trend. Other companies might think that, main issue that have to challenge with is if the Six Sigma really benefits the company or   it cost the company to sacrifice the innovative and creative culture for the sake of continuous improvement of products to satisfy the customers and accelerate the financial performance. Nevertheless it proven worth it by 3M because of the rescue it has done to the company while it was falling behind. Organisational Culture: In terms of its organization culture, 3M’s Company culture is promoted to be freedom and full of excitement and anticipation. Employees enjoy being heroes. 3M Company is being innovative in its cultures and company growth, so the focus needs to be on how innovation in 3M, including working cultures and people management etc. can be replicated and benefits different areas in our daily applications Goldman, Maritz, Nienaber, Pretorius, Priilaid and Willliams (2010:94) referring to Roger Harrison’s model of organisational culture mentions that â€Å"it has various attributes with four types of culture that could be easily observed at 3M Company although one called power culture seemed to be more dominant than others. Goldman et al., (2010:95) continue their notion by saying that a person whose personality is suitable for the culture of the organisation will be more likely to succeed than the person who does not naturally fit within the organisation’s culture. The table below reveals all these cultures and their attributes. Culture Attributes Achievement culture Competence, growth, success and distinction Power culture Strength, direction, decisiveness, determination Role culture Structure, order, stability, control Support culture Relationships, mutuality, service, integration Figure 2.1: Adapted from: Goldman et al., (2010:95). Organisational cultures and their attributes. This case study has stressed some of the key activities and principles that contribute to 3M Company’s performance. Most of these are not new and are certainly used by other companies. In 3M Company’s case they may be summarized as an effective company culture that nurtures innovation and a range of management techniques and strategies that together have delivered long-term success. Most of companies pay lip service to the organisation values and practice set out in this case study. There is evidence that 3M Company supports these words with actions. 3M Company hire good people and trust them; this will bring about innovation and excellent performance. 3M Company ensured that introducing Six Sigma is a good move than at other companies. Moreover, the success of the approach is due to the continual reinforcement of its objectives. Indeed, also the performance of individuals is partly judged on whether they are able to achieve the objective. Marketing pull and Marketing push technology According to Lynch (2009:283) market pull is one of the principal sources of innovation which is customer needs analysis. Baker in Lynch (2009:293) emphasize by suggesting that innovation takes place when companies identify new market opportunities and this is how 3M Company attempted to employ market pull by introducing Six Sigma and this exposes that they had ability for creating innovation. The 3M Company business area was completely different from what Six Sigma specialised on so they were necessary forced to encourage creativity, develop leadership skills, customer satisfaction, and exploration and focus where new ideas can come from a wide variety of sources. According to Lynch (2009:283) Technology Push is technology development analysis whereby other industries are being surveyed for their technology developments and assessment of their relevance to its own. 3M Company joined forces with external companies as mentioned above in trying to introduce new approach to growth and link the internally controlled culture of technology push even though they assumed that it was market pull. Their main challenge at 3M Company is that they need to know what technologies to push so that they do not dissolve their establishments. The diagram below illustrates how the two sources of innovation should be exploited by organisation without distinction. Figure 2.2 Adapted from Lynch (2009:283) Two major drives of innovation. QUESTION 3: To what extent, if at all, does innovation matter in setting the purpose of an organisation? Yes innovation does matter in this case because; many organizations invest in innovation in order to change. Organizations put aside a percentage of turnovers to change products, processes, and services. In particular, the  objectives should be achieved because of this investment. Yet, a very large amount of innovation activities does not meet these objectives. The motives behind failure provides clue regarding how to avoid such failure in the future. In this case study the process by which the companies should apply innovation has been examined. It has been examined by making sure that employee understands the process by which innovation takes place in the work place and then improving. In this case study 3M organizations has tried to lower their innovation failure rates and move faster with the process of growth as mentioned previously above about Six Sigma, the approach to growth. Looking at the process of innovation from idea generation, through evaluation, and on to realization, you will also find customers who become evaluators of the success of an   innovation in the company and by concluding there is also key ways to improve the ability of the company or organisation by monitoring the following innovation processes: ï  ¶ Goals, Actions, Teams, Results. Goals of Innovation The principal goals required by an organization in return for this investment vary between organizations. The following have been found across a large number of manufacturing and service organizations and ranked in order of popularity, with the first goal being common to most organizations (European Commission, 1996): ï  ¶ Improved quality ï  ¶ Creation of new markets ï  ¶ Extension of the product range ï  ¶ Reduced labour costs ï  ¶ Improved production processes ï  ¶ Reduced material ï  ¶ Reduced environmental damage ï  ¶ Replacement of products or services ï  ¶ Reduced energy consumption ï  ¶ Conformance to regulations Following are the critical factors that managing technical innovation in 3M Company: a) Organization culture b) Communication and c) Management The causes of failure can vary widely depending on the individual innovation. Some causes will be external to the organization and outside its influence of control. Others will be internal and ultimately within the control of the organization. Some of the more common causes of failure in organizations can be distilled into the following five types (O’Sullivan, 2002): ï  ¶ Poor goal definition It means that organizations find it difficult to define their goals. Poor goal definition requires that organizations decide on appropriate goals for their environment and define these goals in terms that are understandable to everyone involved in the innovation process. ï  ¶ Poor alignment of actions to goals Means that organizations find it difficult to continuously link the ideas and projects they are pursuing with their goals. This is perhaps even more acute if goals are difficult to define in the first place. It also influences effective management of the portfolios of projects that the organization is undertaking to ensure they are balanced appropriately. ï  ¶ Poor participation in teams It refers to the behaviour of individuals and teams, latent knowledge of the organization, and the particular skills of individuals to contribute to the achievement of innovation. It also refers to the payment and reward systems that link individuals to goals. ï  ¶ The poor monitoring of results It refers to sharing of the status of goals, actions, and teams involved in the innovation process within the innovation team and its main stakeholders. ï  ¶ Poor communication and sense of community It relate to ineffective channels of communication and collaboration that constrain knowledge sharing and the ability of employees to participate as a broader community in the innovation process and make informed decisions when needed. Steyn, Schmikl and van Dyk (2010:66) state that knowledge delivers sustainable competitive advantage as illustrated below Leading to> Resulting to> Increased revenue Knowledge creation Technology development Experimental and emergent purpose Innovation Enhanced value added Stronger sustainable competitiveadvantage Figure 3.1: Adapted from Lynch 2009:261- An emergent approach to purpose According to Palmer and Kaplan (2007:2) Strategic Innovation is the creation of growth strategies, new product categories, services or business models that change the game and generate significant new value for consumers, customers and the corporation. According to Lynch (2009:282) innovation is the generation and exploitation of new ideas. This has helped the 3M Company to gain strength in applying lessons learnt from previous experiences like the one of losing the sales and profit. This has made them to be able to deliver what refers to as the priceless assets to strategic management such as the following: ï  ¶ Substantial future growth: The process of improving some measure of the organisation’s success which can be achieved either by boosting the top line or revenue of the business with greater product sales or service income. 3M Company able to restructure by introducing the approach to growth. ï  ¶ Ability to leapfrog major competition, even dominant competitors: Ability to conquer competition focusing on extensive promotions to highlight the distinctive benefits or features of products. 3M Company had employees who are strong in making sales and come up with high successful product â€Å"Post-it notes†. In terms of the competition, it started internally. â€Å"Every company seeks the keys to innovation, but few find them. Over the decades, 3M learned how to be innovative and today the company uses that skill to great competitive advantage.† — Jerry I. Porras, Co-author, Built to Last â€Å"Innovation is more than just a bright idea; it is an idea that gets implemented and has a real impact. In other words, somebody has to make it happen.† — Ernest Gundling, Author, The 3M Way to Innovation: Balancing People and Profit 2.  CONCLUSION It is advisable that, organisation should have its own database in order to fix or limit the problems in the company rather than running at a loss. 3M Company created their database and spent about $20 million, it in an integrated database, which stores information on customers, products, sales, inventory, and finance from all divisions and geographies. If all the organisations of the same nature can follow what 3M Company did, access can be gained to the database through a user-friendly website. Strong search which bring together related products and services from across the entire 3M Company can be easily accessed. Personnel and partners can also access latest information on product prices, availability, specifications and reviews of customer accounts. â€Å"The profitability of customers and products and the performance of partners can also be analysed across the entire company allowing better allocation of company resources. This allows 3M Company to take advantage of market opp ortunities and cross-selling opportunities and at the same time meet and customize the needs of customer segments. â€Å"(Some of the information is adapted from Harvard Business Review) 3.  BIBLIOGRAPHY ï  ¶ Ernest Gundling, Author, The 3M Way to Innovation: Balancing People and Profit ï  ¶ (European Commission, 1996): Goal Innovation ï  ¶ Goldman, G., Maritz, R., Nienaber, H., Pretorius, M., Priilaid,D. & Williams, D.2010.Strategic Management: Supplement for Southern Africa. (1st Edition) South Africa: Pearson Education. ï  ¶ Havard Business Review. Vol 75 (6): 102-103 ï  ¶ Jerry I. Porras, Co-author, Built to Last ï  ¶ Lynch, R. 2009. Strategic Management. (5th Edition). England; Pearson Education Limited. ï  ¶ McQuarrie, E.F. 1993. Customer visits. Building a better market focus. California: SAGE Publication. ï  ¶ O’Sullivan (Innovation Process) – 5/29/2008

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Health Promotion Among Diverse Community - 1053 Words

Health Promotion among Diverse Popul Grand Canyon University Family-Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V March 6, 2015 Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority group, estimated to be 54 million living in the United States of America. (Office of Minority Health and Health Equity). They work very hard to make both ends meet and also to stay in good health. They are relatively as a source of cheap labor in the American labor market This paper will dwell more on the Hispanic current Health status, how health promotion is described by the group and what health disparities exists for this group. Health Status. The Health status of an individual could be defined as someone watching another and collecting data about a person and based on the information that were collected. Health status of an entire population would be to consider the health of a population, their life span, the extensiveness of preventable diseases or deaths and the availability of their health status (National Center for Health Statistics). The prevalent health situation of Hispanics are Diabetes, Heart diseases, stro ke, liver diseases, cancer asthma, obesity and tobacco use. Heart disease is the main cause of death among all ethnic groups in the United States. Obesity and smoking being are of the risk factors for developing hypertension. 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